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4 takeaways from the Senate child safety hearing with YouTube, Snapchat and TikTok – NPR

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Jennifer Stout , left, vice president of global public policy at Snapchat parent Snap Inc., and Michael Beckerman, vice president and head of public policy at TikTok, testify before a Senate panel on Tuesday.

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Jennifer Stout , left, vice president of global public policy at Snapchat parent Snap Inc., and Michael Beckerman, vice president and head of public policy at TikTok, testify before a Senate panel on Tuesday.

Samuel Corum/Getty Images

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Lawmakers in the Senate hammered representatives from Snapchat, TikTok and YouTube on Tuesday, in a combative hearing about whether the tech giants do enough to keep children safe online.

It marked the first time Snapchat and TikTok have landed in the hot seat in Washington, D.C., and for nearly four hours lawmakers pressed the officials about how the apps have been misused to promote bullying, worsen eating disorders and help teens buy dangerous drugs or engage in reckless behavior.

The hearing was convened by the Senate Commerce subcommittee on consumer protection, product safety and data security — the same panel that brought Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen to testify earlier this month about the thousands of pages of internal company documents she has shared with Congress, regulators and the press. Haugen says the documents show how the social network places profits over public safety.

Haugen’s disclosures about Facebook underscored the potential harms of the platform: its ability to amplify misinformation and how Facebook’s own research showed that Instagram can worsen mental health and body-image issues for young people.

Leaders from Snapchat, TikTok and YouTube face lawmakers about child safety
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Given how enormously popular Snapchat, TikTok and YouTube are with teens, lawmakers expressed deep worry about the platforms having the ability to hurt users’ self-image and contribute to other mental health issues.

In his opening remarks, Sen. Richard Blumenthal, D-Conn., said social media firms claiming they are distinct from Facebook is not going to cut it.

The Facebook Papers: What you need to know about the trove of insider documents

“Being different from Facebook is not a defense,” said Blumenthal, who leads the subcommittee. “That bar is in the gutter. It’s not a defense to say that you are different.”

Sen. Ed Markey, D-Mass., offered an even blunter assessment.

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“The problem is clear: Big Tech preys on children and teens to make more money,” Markey said. “Now is the time for the legislative solutions to these problems.”

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Here are four takeaways from the hearing.

Lawmakers say that until incentives change, social media will be a ‘race to the bottom’

For the youngest users, Blumenthal said, social media companies have a perverse incentive to keep eyeballs glued on their apps, regardless of what kind of content is eventually served up.

“What we want is not a race to the bottom, but a race to the top,” Blumenthal said.

For teens and other young people using social media, being optimized for engagement can make social media apps addicting and lead users to content that is not age appropriate or is harmful, the lawmakers said.

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Sen. Cynthia Lummis, R-Wyo., asked the company officials if platforms are designed to keep people engaged as long as possible.

Michael Beckerman, TikTok’s vice president and head of public policy, was evasive, saying the viral video app sees itself as a form of entertainment, no different than television or movies. Still, the app has a responsibility to give parents time management and “take a break” tools, he said.

For TikTok, Beckerman said, “overall engagement” is more important than how much time is spent on the app.

Jennifer Stout, the vice president of global public policy at Snapchat parent Snap Inc., said time on the app is “one of many metrics” the company studies.

And Leslie Miller, YouTube’s vice president of government affairs and public policy, like the other officials, would not directly answer the question of whether the video-streaming service defines success by how long people spend watching videos.

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“We do look at, for example, if a video was watched through its entirety,” Miller said. “We look at those data points.”

Snapchat says it will continue to fight abuse of its app, including cracking down on drug dealers

Stout told lawmakers that Snapchat is “an antidote to social media,” highlighting how “very little” of its content is sorted by algorithms.

“Snapchat’s architecture was intentionally designed to empower people to express a full range of experiences and emotions with their real friends, not just the pretty and perfect moments,” Stout said.

But lawmakers zeroed in on the ways in which Snapchat has led to harm.

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One feature that drew particular attention from lawmakers was Snapchat’s now-disabled “speed filter,” which critics say encouraged teens to drive at excessive speeds. The feature has been connected to a number of deadly or near-fatal car crashes. The company’s decision to eliminate the feature in June was first reported by NPR.

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Sen. Amy Klobuchar, D-Minn., noted other cases where young people obtained drugs through Snapchat, including one young man who died after purchasing the painkiller Percocet laced with fentanyl on the app.

Snapchat Ends 'Speed Filter' That Critics Say Encouraged Reckless Driving

Snap has stepped up detection measures to root out drug dealers from the platform and launched an education campaign to steer users away from those peddling drugs on the app.

“We are absolutely determined to remove drug dealers from Snapchat,” Stout said.

Officials from all three companies were asked about instances where the platforms were found to have fed young users material about sex, self-harm or content that worsens body-image issues.

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In response, the officials evaded responding to particular examples and instead stated generally that such content would violate its rules and be removed.

“We prohibit content that promotes or glorifies such things as eating disorders, but we also realize that users come and share their stories about these experiences,” said Miller.

At YouTube, Miller said, experts help develop content moderation policies. More than 90% of content that violates its community guidelines is detected through its artificial intelligence, according to Miller.

TikTok’s ties to China were in the spotlight

TikTok, which has more than 1 billion monthly active users around the globe, was grilled about an issue that first landed it in hot water during the Trump administration: its ties to China.

TikTok is a U.S. business that is a subsidiary of ByteDance, a Beijing-based tech giant.

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New DOJ Filing: TikTok's Owner Is 'A Mouthpiece' Of Chinese Communist Party

Officials at TikTok have long said that Americans’ data is primarily stored in the U.S. and safeguarded from the Chinese authorities.

Lawmakers, led by Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, questioned those safeguards, and pushed Beckerman on whether U.S. user data is shared with ByteDance, accusing TikTok of being cozy with Chinese authorities.

Cruz asked Beckerman whether TikTok’s privacy policy permits ByteDance unfettered access to Americans’ personal information.

U.S. Judge Halts Trump's TikTok Ban, The 2nd Court To Fully Block The Action
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Beckerman did not directly answer the question, pointing out that TikTok does not exist in China. The app’s Chinese counterpart is known as Douyin.

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“That does not give this committee any confidence that TikTok is doing anything other than participating in Chinese propaganda and espionage on American children,” said Cruz.

“That is not accurate,” Beckerman shot back.

TikTok To Pay $92 Million To Settle Class-Action Suit Over 'Theft' Of Personal Data

China-based ByteDance engineers do have access to U.S. user data, but can only gain such access with permission from an American security team, a top TikTok security official said last year in a sworn statement as part of the company’s legal battle with the Trump administration.

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“We do not share information with the Chinese government,” Beckerman told Senators on Tuesday.

The companies refused to commit on legislative proposals

Even though there is bipartisan support in Washington to regulate the tech industry, Democrats and Republicans differ in diagnosing the problem, and sometimes have opposing solutions.

Nonetheless, senators discussed a range of legislative proposals, like an update to a law known as Section 230 that provides a legal shield to the industry.

In addition, bills that would protect the online privacy rights of children, ban ads targeting young users and eliminate core features of social media, including “like” buttons, autoplay and push alerts were also put to company officials.

Most of the time, however, lawmakers could not pin down the positions of the tech company representatives on various proposals.

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The 26 Words That Made The Internet What It Is

After the officials refused to offer clear answers on whether they supported a law that would regulate how tech companies can collect personal data from teenagers, Markey became frustrated.

“This is just what drives us crazy, ‘We want to talk, want to talk, want to talk.’ This bill’s been out there for years, and you still don’t have a view on it,” Markey said.

Blumenthal, too, grew impatient with the answers from the company representatives on specific pieces of legislation that would impose greater restrictions on the tech industry.

Markey said it wasn’t enough to simply support the goals of the legislation, as the officials said that they did. “That’s meaningless if you don’t support the legislation,” he said.

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Editor’s Note: Google, which owns YouTube, is among NPR’s recent financial supporters.

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TIKTOK

TikTok Expands Creator Tipping and Video Gifts, Providing More Monetization and Marketing Options

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TikTok continues to expand its creator monetization tools with the addition of video tipping and virtual gifts for regular uploads, in addition to live-streams in the app.

To be clear, live tipping and digital gifts have been available for selected live-stream creators via its Creator Next program since last year. This new expansion brings the same functionality to regular TikTok videos, which will add another way for users to generate direct income from their TikTok videos.

TikTok Creator Next

As you can see in these screenshots, shared by social media expert Matt Navarra (via Dan Schenker), to be eligible for the new Creator Next program, users will need to have at least 1,000 followers, and will need to have generated more than 1,000 video views in the previous 30 days.

Though TikTok does note that these requirements vary by region – TechCrunch has reported that creators need to have at least 100k followers to qualify in some cases.

As explained by TikTok:

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The new Tips feature allows people to directly show gratitude to creators for their content, much like recognizing exceptional service or giving a standing ovation. As is standard for tipping in person, with Tips creators will receive 100% of the tip value.”

Tip payments will be processed by Stripe, with creators required to sign up to manage their earnings in the app.

“With Video Gifts, also available today, creators can now collect Diamonds not only by going LIVE but also by posting videos. This also gives people an all-new way to interact and engage with content they love.”

TikTok live gifts

That will provide expanded capacity to generate real money from posting, without having to go live, which will open new doors to many TikTok creators.

In addition to this, TikTok’s also lowering the threshold for those who can list their profiles in its Creator Marketplace brand collaboration platform, which enables businesses to find TikTok influencers to partner with on in-app campaigns.

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TikTok Creator marketplace

Up till now, creators have required 100k followers to qualify for these listings, but now, TikTok is reducing that number to 10k, which will further expand available opportunities for both users and brands.

That could make it much easier to find relevant creators to partner with, in a lot more niches, which will add more considerations into your TikTok posting and engagement process.

As noted, these are the latest in TikTok’s broader efforts to provide comparable monetization opportunities, in order to keep its top stars posting to the platform, as opposed to drifting off to YouTube or Instagram instead, which have more established monetization systems.

The advantage that other apps have in this respect is that longer videos can include pre-roll and mid-roll ads, facilitating direct monetization, which TikTok can’t utilize given the shorter nature of its clips. As such, it needs to look to alternate funding methods, which will also include eCommerce listings, with direct product displays now the primary source of income for the Chinese version of the app.

The platform’s continued growth facilitates even more opportunities in this respect, with more brands looking to tap into the various opportunities of the platform, and partner with creators to maximize their presence.

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How popular, and valuable, direct tipping and gifting can be is more variable, as some dedicated fan bases will pay, while others will see no reason to donate for what they can already access for free.

But even so, it adds more opportunity, and the lower thresholds for monetization will see many more opportunities across the board in the app.

See also  The TikTok Curriculum
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Shorter Videos Are In Demand. Here’s How Different Social Media Platforms Are Reacting.

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Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.

With TikTok and Instagram Reels slowly conquering social media marketing, there’s no mistake: Short videos are in demand.

The average length for most, if not all, business videos is only six minutes long. And that number is set to decrease as consumers look for shorter videos.

With that in mind, why are short videos in demand? What platforms are implementing short-form videos the best? And most importantly, how can they benefit your business?

TikTok – Changing consumerism, one video at a time

Where shorter videos are concerned, TikTok has always led the industry. What started as a merger with Musical.ly quickly became one of the world’s most powerful social media platforms. And what made it so famous? The same concept that made Vine viral short videos.

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TikTok has over 1 billion active users, twice as many as Snapchat and Pinterest. For reference, Twitter only has 397 million users. With such a massive user-base, the only thing keeping the platform alive are the 15-second-long videos.

But why are short videos so popular? Simple – people don’t have time on their hands. When they open apps like TikTok and Instagram, they’re more likely to spend time watching shorter videos.  And businesses are already catching up.

The impact of Instagram Reels

With the invention of Stories by Snapchat, other platforms like Instagram caught up on short videos. Instagram Reels presents adults and young users with a more straightforward way to tell others about their day. It employs quick photos and videos that are only available for 24 hours instead of being permanently posted. Now engagement is encouraged, especially after Instagram included the “Swipe” option. This has allowed e-commerce sites to both advertise their products and make instant messaging easier.

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Youtube has joined the bandwagon

While YouTube is more or less a platform for long-form videos, its recent update offers shorter vertical videos. Known as YouTube Shorts, the feature allows creators to engage with their audience in under 60 seconds.

But YouTube has another trick up its sleeve, and this one is mainly towards advertisers. It is “YouTube TrueView” and is the primary advertising technology for YouTube. Through this, advertisers can promote long or short videos, with some being skippable after five seconds.

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However, since most people are unlikely to click on longer ads, YouTube now offers 6-second non-skippable ads. The clickthrough rate for shorter 15 and 30-second ads is around 70%, a whopping number for any business.

It’s time to say goodbye to IGTV

With Instagram’s IGTV coming off as less captivating than its Reels and video posts, it has decided to remove IGTV. Instead, it has a separate section for videos. These videos will appear on a person’s profile and can be viewed from the Instagram app.

The change they made here is that videos posted to the Instagram feed can be up to 60 minutes long. The exact reason for doing this is not confirmed. But it seems like Instagram wants a seamless platform where short and long videos co-exist.

This makes long videos more accessible to users using the Instagram app. And it helps promote video tutorials that people typically do not consume on social media apps.

Another significant change is that Instagram videos that are longer can be monetized, a feature not available on Reels. This significantly shifts the focus towards creators who don’t sell a service and want to gain cash through Instagram.

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Does this mean long-form videos are out of the picture?

With short-form videos becoming more popular among consumers, will long-form videos die out? While it’s highly recommended for any business to create videos as short as possible, the answer isn’t that black and white.

See also  The TikTok Curriculum

While short-form videos will drive traffic from new users, long-form videos are better for brand loyalty. Shorter videos will get more engagement and show up on new users’ feeds. But longer videos will be the backbone of your business.

Of course, that depends on what service you’re offering. Ecommerce companies will want to direct their attention towards short-form videos and ads. However, long-form videos are better suited for when you want to go in-depth about product details. That is, of course, only after you’ve grabbed the user’s attention with a short-form video.

Companies that offer webinars will benefit from longer videos. And so will companies that post interviews. However, promos and how-to videos should remain under a minute or two, depending on how long the tutorial needs to be.

Essentially, ask yourself two questions:

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  • First, can the video content be summarized in a short-form video?
  • Do you want to merely catch the attention of the consumer or develop brand loyalty?

The correct formula is neither short nor long, but a mix of both.

What this all means for an entrepreneur

Short-form videos hold substantial market value, especially for new businesses. Take the example of the Dollar Shave Club. What started as a viral video on YouTube grew to become a behemoth of a brand.

And that’s not where the examples end. There are countless success stories like this one that prove the value of short videos.

Short videos have a higher clickthrough rate, and for entrepreneurs, that’s all you need. Short videos are of particular interest to people with ecommerce businesses. For example, 84% of people say they are more compelled to buy a product by watching a video. And the statistics keep on showing a friendlier short-video market.

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There is no doubt that short-form videos are gradually creeping up the graph. And while long-form videos are great for information and brand loyalty, shorter videos are better for PR.

This begs one last question: Are videos beneficial for you? The answer is – yes!

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TIKTOK

How to Make a TikTok Video: Beginners Start Here

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Let’s face it, TikTok is the moment.

And with 1 billion monthly active users, it’s time to join the action and get your brand out there to a wider audience!

Want to learn how to make a TikTok Video but don’t know where to start? Don’t sweat it! We broke down all the steps and tools you’ll need to make a viral-worthy first video and make sure your debut is anything but cringe.

Download the full Social Trends report to get an in-depth analysis of the data you need to prioritize and plan your social strategy in 2022.

How to create a TikTok account

First things first, you’ll need to create a TikTok account.

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There are different ways to sign up for one: you can use your phone number, email address or social media account. Here’s how to do it using your phone number.

1. Download TikTok from Google Play or the App Store.

2. Open the TikTok App on your iPhone or Android.

3. Click the “Me” or “Profile” icon at the bottom-right of your screen.

profile icon on TikTok

4. Choose a method to sign up (we’re choosing “use phone or email”)

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sign up for TikTok using phone or email

5. Enter your birth date and phone number (make sure this is accurate because it’s how you’ll retrieve passwords and confirm your account).

enter birthday when signing up on TikTok

6. Enter the 6-digit code sent to that phone number (see, told ya!)

7. You did it! Celebrate by scrolling TikTok for too many hours.

How to make a TikTok video

Here’s how to get started on your very first TikTok video. Luckily for you, it’s way easier than learning this TikTok Shuffle dance.

1. Hit the + sign at the bottom of your screen.

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2. You can upload photos and videos from your phone’s library or make a video directly using the TikTok camera.

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3. If recording directly, hit the Record button at the bottom of the screen. Hit it again when you’re done recording. The default video mode is “Quick” which is for 15 second videos but you can switch it to “Camera” for more editing options and longer videos (15s, 60s and 3 mins), or “Templates” to create a specific style of video.

record button on the bottom of TikTok screen

4. Tap the check mark when you’re done shooting all your footage.

tap checkmark after shooting footage

5. Make any edits or changes on the post page. All your edits are on the right sidebar of the screen. Also, add music or sounds by hitting “Add sound” at the top of the screen.

add sound on TikTok

6. Post that video and share it everywhere! Make sure to include a description with some hashtags so it finds its way to your audience.

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post video on TikTok with description

How to make a TikTok with multiple videos

Instead of taking one long video, why not capture shorter videos and edit them together to make your TikTok video? Here’s how to do that (and you don’t need a film degree).

1. Hit that “+” sign to start your video

2. You can either shoot multiple videos directly by hitting that record button after each clip, building up your video with different shots. Or, you can hit the “Upload” button next to the record button and add multiple videos and photos you have stored on your phone.

3. Select all your media and tap Next.

4. You can now sync sound across your videos and make adjustments (or try “Auto sync” which will do the syncing up for you.)

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sync sound on TikTok

automatically sync clips

5. Hit Next when done. You’ll be brought to a preview screen where you can further add sounds, more effects, text, and stickers.

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hit next and add suggested sounds

6. Tap Next when you’re done editing your video and proceed to the Post screen.

7. Remember to throw in a description and some hashtags and bingo-bango-bongo you’re the Steven Spielberg of TikTok!

5 things to know before creating your first TikTok

TikTok style is less polished than other types of video

Don’t worry about being too precious with your videos. On TikTok, videos are meant to be candid, and natural—and they should show off your personality. Things like perfect edits, smooth transitions or flawless lighting shouldn’t get in the way of your idea and your own charisma.

Sure, there are lots of editing options, effects and filters to choose from (what the heck is the difference between B3 and G4 filters anyways?) but the real star is you —or, at least all 6 of these friends belting out Lady Gaga for the #caughtinabadromance challenge at this bachelorette. If that’s not candid, I don’t know what is.

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@ariellehartford

That finger stole the show! 😂😂😂 #bachelorettetrip #gatlinburg #caughtinabadromamce

♬ original sound – Arielle Hartford

You don’t have to dance

Good news! You don’t have to spend 2 hours trying to perfect the LaLisa dance tutorial to make sure your video stands out (unless you want to, then no judgment over here!).

There are so many different ways to engage your followers that don’t involve you popping and locking in your living room in front of a ring light (but again, no judgement if you do, except maybe from your pet and their adorable judging eyes).

You also don’t have to attempt whatever this is.

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@sdavidrodriguez

♬ Grab Da Wall & Rock Da Boat – 504 Boyz & Weebie

Hashtags can help more people see your post

It’s no secret a good hashtag can go a long way on TikTok. Strategic use of hashtags will help people find your videos who don’t already follow you, and maybe even see it on their For You Page (FYP).

Find the best hashtags to grow your views and help get your content recognized by the algorithm. You worked so hard on it, might as well show it off to as many people as possible.

The right song can go a long way

Attaching a trending song to your video or audio from a popular TikTok video can help it get seen by more people. This app has a big music following (lots of new songs are intentionally promoted through the app to help them climb the music charts) so lassoing your video to one of these shooting stars is only going to help you get on more FYP and in front of new audiences.

@suzyjonesmusic

♬ original sound – Suzy Jones

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Your greatest asset is you

Don’t overthink it, just come up with a simple idea and let your personality shine through. The sense of intimacy and community that TikTok brings is why people love this app—it feels personal.

Even if you’re doing a TikTok challenge or trend that’s popular, the thing that will make you stand out is your unique take on it. It’s not about gimmicks but about putting your best self out there. Nothing should feel too staged or self-aware (that’s cringe territory). Pretend your audience are your good friends and approach it with that energy!

@janikon_No, I can’t re-record this, I’m laughing too hard #fyp♬ original sound – Stu (he/him)

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