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Facebook removed 2.6 billion fake accounts as 2020 election played out

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RNZ’s podcast The Detail: Changes to your Facebook’s news feed have sparked questions about the company’s algorithm.

Facebook says it removed more than 2.6 billion fake accounts around the globe while New Zealand’s 2020 election played out, but Kiwi intelligence agencies say they did not detect any campaigns to unduly influence the outcome.

Representatives for Facebook fronted Parliament’s Justice Select Committee for the first time on Thursday, seeking to persuade MPs the social media platform was an honest broker during the 2020 election.

The role of Facebook in elections has been particularly fraught in recent years, with influence campaigns being waged in the United States and French elections. On Tuesday afternoon, New Zealand’s intelligence agencies told the committee there was no comparable attempt to influence New Zealand’s election.

Facebook’s regional director of public policy, Mia Garlick,​ on Thursday told the committee that in the second half of 2020 Facebook removed 2.6 billion fake accounts across the globe.

Facebook Australia and NZ director of policy Mia Garlick fronted a parliamentary select committee on Thursday.

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Facebook Australia and NZ director of policy Mia Garlick fronted a parliamentary select committee on Thursday.

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Garlick could not say exactly how many New Zealand accounts had been removed.

More than 2 billion Facebook users had been directed to the World Health Organisation and New Zealand health authorities for factual Covid-19 information, she said, and 80 million pieces of misinformation about the pandemic had been removed.

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Nick McDonnell, Facebook’s head of public policy for New Zealand, said the social media giant had run a fake news awareness campaign alongside NetSafe, which reached 1.6 million people on social media.

Facebook also hired the Australian Associated Press (AAP) to provide a fact-checking service used to combat misinformation on the site.

He said transparency around political advertising was provided through the site’s now-mandatory “ads library” function, which verified political advertisers and made public behind-the-scenes details of adverts such as which demographics saw the advert.

Green Party MP Golriz Ghahraman said she did not think Facebook should be allowed to “self-govern” any longer.

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Green Party MP Golriz Ghahraman said she did not think Facebook should be allowed to “self-govern” any longer.

Green Party MP Golriz Ghahraman said she had “grave concerns” about Facebook’s role in New Zealand democracy.

She said 63,714 New Zealand users had their data leaked or harvested from the social media platform, since the 2018 Cambridge Analytica scandal for which Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg apologised.

“We know that that data is used quite often in political manipulation,” she said.

“When are we going to see Facebook present us with a transparent, accountable system of where you will intervene? … We should know what standards you’re actually applying before you apply it, so that we know how to create regulation.

“The time of us treating you as the postman, rather than the publisher, it has past. You are the publisher, and we hold publishers to account in a very different way.”

Garlick said she did not agree with Ghahraman’s characterisation of the company, and the company’s community standards were transparent and updated every two weeks.

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“We recognise that we need to be more transparent. We need to be accountable. But we’re not waiting for regulation, we’re trying to work to provide that transparency and accountability, whilst we also actively engage with this committee and others here in New Zealand,” she said.

“We continue to evolve and ensure that our privacy policies and data practices are very robust, and we’re complying with applicable privacy laws.”

National MP Simeon Brown took issue with Facebook using of fact-checkers.

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National MP Simeon Brown took issue with Facebook using of fact-checkers.

National Party MP Simeon Brown took issue with the employing of a fact-checker, suggesting AAP had unfairly fact checked opposition MPs during the election.

Garlick said Facebook’s policy was not to fact-check “politician’s speech”, and the example raised by Brown may have been other work produced by the company.

She was unable to answer questions on how many fact-checkers Facebook had employed, and how much had been spent on the service.

On Tuesday, Security Intelligence Service director-general Rebecca Kitteridge and Government Communications Security Bureau acting director-general Bridget White fronted the committee.

Both said there were no “sustained” campaigns to influence New Zealand’s election, or compromise electoral processes, detected during the 2020 election.

Director-General of Security Rebecca Kitteridge (left) also fronted the committee.

ROBERT KITCHIN/Stuff

Director-General of Security Rebecca Kitteridge (left) also fronted the committee.

“We detected some efforts or interest expressed in trying to influence specific communities. But not sufficient that it would that there was material impact on the election,” Kitteridge said.

White said New Zealand’s paper-based voting system reduced the potential for malicious attacks of the voting process.

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Electoral Commission chief electoral officer Alicia Wright told the committee on Tuesday the commission was interested in digital processes which could assist hand counting of votes. However, a legislation change would be required.

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Facebook Adds New Trend Insights in Creator Studio, Which Could Help Shape Your Posting Strategy

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Facebook’s looking to provide more content insight within Creator Studio with the rollout of a new ‘Inspiration Hub’ element, which highlights trending content and hashtags within categories related to your business Page.

Facebook Inspiration Hub

As you can see in these screenshots, posted by social media expert Matt Navarra, when it becomes available to you, you’ll be able to access the new Inspiration Hub from the Home tab in Creator Studio.

At the right side of the screen, you can see the first of the new insights, with trending hashtags and videos from the last 24 hours, posted by Pages similar to yours, displayed above a ‘See more’ prompt.

When you tap through to the new hub, you’ll have a range of additional filters to check out trending content from across Facebook, including Page category, content type, region, and more.

Facebook Inspiration Hub

That could be hugely valuable in learning what Facebook users are responding to, and what people within your target market are engaging with in the app.

The Hub also includes insights into trending hashtags, within your chosen timeframe, which may further assist in tapping into trending discussions.

Facebook Inspiration Hub

How valuable hashtags are on Facebook is still up for debate, but you’ll also note that you can filter the displayed results by platform, so you can additionally display Instagram hashtag trends as well, which could be very valuable in maximizing your reach.

Much of this type of info has been available within CrowdTangle, Facebook’s analytics platform for journalists, for some time, but not everyone can access CrowdTangle data, which could make this an even more valuable proposition for many marketers.

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Of course, overall performance really relates to your own creative, and thinking through the action that you want your audience to take when reading your posts. But in terms of detecting new content trends, including hashtag usage, caption length, videos versus image posts, and more, there’s a lot that could be gleaned from these tools and filters.

It’s a significant analytics addition – we’ve asked Facebook for more info on the rollout of the new option, and whether it’s already beyond test mode, etc. We’ll update this post if/when we hear back.

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Meta Updates Policy on Cryptocurrency Ads, Opening the Door to More Crypto Promotions in its Apps

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With cryptocurrencies gaining momentum, in line with the broader Web 3.0 push, Meta has today announced an update to its ad policies around cryptocurrencies, which will open the door to more crypto advertisers on its platforms.

As per Meta:

Starting today, we’re updating our eligibility criteria for running ads about cryptocurrency on our platform by expanding the number of regulatory licenses we accept from three to 27. We are also making the list of eligible licenses publicly available on our policy page.”

Essentially, in order to run any crypto ads in Meta’s apps, that currency needs to adhere to regional licensing provisions, which vary by nation. With crypto becoming more accepted, Meta’s now looking to enable more crypto companies to publish ads on its platform, which will provide expanded opportunity for recognized crypto providers to promote their products, while also enabling Meta to make more money from crypto ads.

“Previously, advertisers could submit an application and include information such as any licenses they obtained, whether they are traded on a public stock exchange, and other relevant public background on their business. However, over the years the cryptocurrency landscape has matured and stabilized and experienced an increase in government regulation, which has helped to set clearer responsibilities and expectations for the industry. Going forward, we will be moving away from using a variety of signals to confirm eligibility and instead requiring one of these 27 licenses.”

Is that a good move? Well, as Meta notes, the crypto marketplace is maturing, and there’s now much wider recognition of cryptocurrencies as a legitimate form of payment. But they’re also not supported by most local financial regulators, which reduced transaction protection and oversight, which also brings a level of risk in such process.

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But then again, all crypto providers are required to clearly outline any such risks, and most also highlight the ongoing market volatility in the space. This expanded level of overall transparency means that most people who are investing in crypto have at least some awareness of these elements, which likely does diminish the risk factor in such promotions within Meta’s apps.

But as crypto adoption continues to expand, more of these risks will become apparent, and while much of the crypto community is built on good faith, and a sense of community around building something new, there are questions as to how much that can hold at scale, and what that will then mean for evolving scams and criminal activity, especially as more vulnerable investors are brought into the mix.

Broader promotional capacity through Meta’s apps will certainly help to boost exposure in this respect – though again, the relative risk factors are lessened by expanded regulatory oversight outside of the company.

You can read more about Meta’s expanded crypto ad regulations here.

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Meta Outlines Evolving Safety Measures in Messaging as it Seeks to Allay Fears Around the Expansion of E2E Encryption

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Amid rising concern about Meta’s move to roll out end-to-end encryption by default to all of its messaging apps, Meta’s Global Head of Safety Antigone Davis has today sought to provide a level of reassurance that Meta is indeed aware of the risks and dangers that such protection can pose, and that it is building safeguards into its processes to protect against potential misuse.

Though the measures outlined don’t exactly address all the issues raised by analysts and safety groups around the world.

As a quick recap, back in 2019, Facebook announced its plan to merge the messaging functionalities of Messenger, Instagram and WhatsApp, which would then provide users with a universal inbox, with all of your message threads from each app accessible on either platform.

The idea is that this will simplify cross-connection, while also opening the door to more opportunities for brands to connect with users in the messaging tool of their choice – but it also, inherently, means that the data protection method for its messaging tools must rise to the level of WhatsApp, its most secure messaging platform, which already includes E2E encryption as the default.

Various child safety experts raised the alarm, and several months after Facebook’s initial announcement, representatives from the UK, US and Australian Governments sent an open letter to Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg requesting that the company abandon its integration plan.

Meta has pushed ahead, despite specific concerns that the expansion of encryption will see its messaging tools used by child trafficking and exploitation groups, and now, as it closes in on the next stage, Meta’s working to counter such claims, with Davis outlining six key elements which she believes will ensure safety within this push.

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Davis has explained the various measures that Meta has added on this front, including:

  • Detection tools to stop adults from repeatedly setting up new profiles in an attempt to connect minors that they don’t know
  • Safety notices in Messenger, which provide tips on spotting suspicious behavior
  • The capacity to filter messages with selected keywords on Instagram
  • More filtering options in chat requests to help avoid unwanted contact
  • Improved education prompts to help detect spammers and scammers in messages
  • New processes to make it easier to report potential harm, including an option to select “involves a child”, which will then prioritize the report for review and action

Meta messaging security options

Which are all good, all important steps in detection, while Davis also notes that its reporting process “decrypts portions of the conversation that were previously encrypted and unavailable to us so that we can take immediate action if violations are detected”.

That’ll no doubt raise an eyebrow or two among WhatsApp users – but the problem here is that, overall, the broader concern is that such protections will facilitate usage by criminal groups, and the reliance on self-reporting in this respect is not going to have any impact on these networks operating, at scale, under a more protected messaging framework within Meta’s app eco-system.

Governments have called for ‘backdoor access’ to break Meta’s encryption for investigations into such activity, which Meta says is both not possible and will not be built into its future framework. The elements outlined by Davis do little to address this specific need, and without the capacity to better detect such, it’s hard to see any of the groups opposed to Meta’s expanded encryption changing their stance, and accepting that the merging of all of the platform’s DM options will not also see a rise in criminal activity organized via the same apps.

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Of course, the counterargument could be that encryption is already available on WhatsApp, and that criminal activity of this type can already be undertaken within WhatsApp alone. But with a combined user count of 3.58 billion people per month across its family of apps, that’s a significantly broader interconnection of people than WhatsApp’s 2 billion active users, which, arguably, could open the door to far more potential harm and danger in this respect.

Really, there’s no right answer here. Privacy advocates will argue that encryption should be the standard, and that more people are actually more protected, on balance, by enhanced security measures. But there is also an undeniable risk in shielding even more criminal groups from detection.

Either way, right now, Meta seems determined to push ahead with the plan, which will weld all of its messaging tools together, and also make it more difficult to break-up its network, if any antitrust decisions don’t go Meta’s way, and it’s potentially pressed to sell-off Instagram or WhatsApp as a result.

But expect more debate to be had, in more countries, as Meta continues to justify its decision, and regulatory and law enforcement groups seek more options to help maintain a level of accessibility for criminal investigations and detection.

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