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Tech By Her: How Three of Facebook’s Women Tech Leaders Have Navigated Their Careers



To celebrate this year’s International Women’s Day (IWD) theme of “An equal world is an enabled world,” we’re kicking off “Tech by Her,” a global initiative that champions and supports the women in our developer and startup communities and across the tech ecosystem.

How to Navigate the Challenge of Being a Woman in Tech

In the technology industry, gender disparity continues to be an issue – women held only 20% of all jobs in technology in 20181 and Crunchbase reported that a mere 13% of vested venture capital funds were put behind female co-founded startups in 20192.

It’s no secret that women face unique challenges in the workplace. Because of the gender bias that is prevalent in the tech world, the women currently in senior leadership roles have made it to the top through merit, grit and determination. At Facebook, we brought three of our women leaders from the Developer Partnerships team across the globe to share how they were able to face and overcome their challenges, and find success in the tech field.

Finding Confidence through a Support Network

For Virginia Yang, Director of APAC Developer Partnerships & Programs, her biggest challenge has been facing and overcoming self-doubt. This began for her in university, where she was one of the few women studying computer science. “I often got looks walking into class as if I had entered the wrong room,” she said.

Unfortunately, this did not change when she graduated and began her career, where she was a rare woman in the role of product manager. “I was asked multiple times – and even incredulously – ’You have a degree in computer science?’,” she said.

Additionally, Virginia describes herself as an introvert, and she found it difficult to speak up during meetings that were dominated by more extroverted coworkers. But she learned how to overcome these challenges by finding workplace allies who gave her advice and support. “They were always there when I needed a confidence boost,” Virginia said. “That has really helped me navigate the challenging points I’ve faced throughout my career.”

Standing Up for Yourself and Correcting Gender Bias

As for Viktoria Ruubel, Director of EMEA Developer Partnerships & Programs, she struggled with how to face and correct misconceptions about women in technology. She said, “I vividly remember a situation where I was saying ‘no’ to the terms of a proposed deal and was told this was an emotional response on my part that was probably due to a lack of experience.”

Though Viktoria’s wealth of experience commands respect in the workplace today, she still hears stories of other women who face challenges similar to hers. “This tells me we still have to work hard to increase awareness about how making assumptions based on gender creates a bias, and to always call it out when it happens rather than accept and internalize it.”

Viktoria recalls how she handled – and ultimately corrected – the gender bias she faced during the business deal: “I stood firm on my terms, suggested we revisit the deal when the partner was ready to talk about the deal and not about me and then walked out of the room. It was not long before I received an apology and we closed the deal with my recommendations, which really were win-win for both our companies.”

Confronting Inner Negativity

Facebook’s Director of Global Product Partnerships, Jackie Chang, knows firsthand how inner self-doubt can lead to self-sabotage and overshadow one’s own value. Returning from maternity leave, Jackie heard the whisperings of self-doubt, which shook her confidence. “I started to question if I’d be able to balance my new reality at home and still have the time and energy to be impactful, drive perspectives and serve others at work,” Jackie said.

Once, when a comment from her manager left her feeling unsettled, Jackie mustered the courage to confront the situation. By being open and honest about her feelings and the situation, she was able to dispel any concerns about her abilities to be an asset to the team. In fact, she learned that she misinterpreted the comment and had allowed self-doubt to guide how she responded in the workplace.

She recalls the outcome of this meeting as being one of increased mutual trust and understanding and manifested into a fruitful partnership. “This was a very impactful lesson for me,” she said. “I learned the importance of addressing challenges head-on and cutting to the truth rather than entertaining the negative chatter in my mind.”

Finding Inspiration through Facebook Communities

At Facebook, we are committed to enabling an equal world by driving diversity in the tech ecosystem. We have established tech hubs in fifteen cities across the world alongside intensive programs such as our Accelerator program and Developer Circles (DevC). These programs provide developers and startups – especially those helmed by women – access to training, guidance and mentorship, which can lead them to scale their careers and businesses sustainably. Read some of the inspirational stories of women innovators and startup founders who are raising the bar all around the world here.

Join us in celebrating a woman in tech whom you know of by giving her a shout-out on your social channels with the hashtag #TechbyHer. You can also engage in the conversation by joining future FB Lives and look out for videos we’ll be sharing on our Facebook pages across Facebook for Developers, Facebook Developer Circles and Facebook for Startups.

Favorite Community Story:

Virginia Yang’s pick:
One of my favorite stories of all time is of Nyha Shree, Co-founder of, an AI-enabled software platform that helps businesses chat and connect with customers via social media platforms. I love that though she failed to find success with several startup ventures, Nyha never gave up – not even when she was living on 40 cents a day and facing pressure from friends and family to get a stable job. Today, – her sixth venture – is a Facebook product partner that has over 15,000 using their service. Nyha’s resilience and entrepreneurial spirit has been a huge inspiration to me.Read Nyha’s story here
Viktoria Ruubel’s pick:
I relate to Tamara & Mariia Koliada’s journey. Like Tamara I often felt like I was being judged not by my abilities, but by my gender and physical appearance. I admire greatly the way both the Koliada sisters are forging careers in tech despite prejudice and how they inspire other women within their Developer Circle community.
Read Tamara and Mariia’s story here
Jackie Chang’s pick:
The story of Katherine from Whatsquare really resonates with me. Katherine was able to draw on her experience in marketing, communications, and business development to identify a market gap and opportunity in customer care. Beyond her business, she strives to build community and connections with other female entrepreneurs to draw on a stronger collective of support and expertise. We need more Katherines to grow the community of global female leaders!
Read Katherine’s story here

1 Only 20% of Tech Jobs are Held by Women, How About at Your.” 13 Mar. 2018, Accessed 6 Mar. 2020.
2 “Crunchbase Report: Venture Funding For Female Founders ….” 22 Oct. 2019, Accessed 6 Mar. 2020.Facebook Developers

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Introducing Graph v8.0 and Marketing API v8.0



Today, we’re releasing Graph API v8.0 and Marketing API v8.0. Some updates may require developer action, while others are shared with the purpose of keeping you informed. In this update, we’re also sharing upcoming deprecations. Visit the Platform Initiatives Hub to stay informed of other planned improvements.

If you are an iOS developer, stay tuned for further SDK announcements regarding Apple’s pending iOS14 launch.

Developer Action Required

Changes to tokenless access for User Picture and FB/IG OEmbed endpoints: By October 24, 2020, developers must leverage a user, app, or client token when querying Graph API for user profile pictures via UID, FB OEmbeds and IG OEmbeds. Developers should provide a user or app token when querying for profile pictures via a UID or ASID, though client tokens are supported as well. Please visit our changelog for User Picture, Facebook OEmbed and Instagram OEmbed for details on how to start calling these Graph API endpoints today.

Business Management Permission Updates: For an app to access the business field on ad accounts, we now require the app to have been granted granular permissions to the specific business object being accessed. By November 2, 2020, apps will need to request granular business_management permissions on the business that owns the ad accounts. For more information about granular permissions, check out our permission documentation.

Decoupling catalog_management from ads_management permissions: In response to developer’s interest to access these separately, we are decoupling these permissions. Detailed instructions are included in our v8.0 changelog. By January 31, 2021, developers who already have access to catalog_management will maintain access but will need to prompt their users to grant access via the FB Login Dialog.

Deprecations In This Update

As part of our ongoing commitments to privacy and security, we continue to make updates to our platform, including removing access to a number of APIs, as well as certain features. Timelines for each of these changes are detailed in their corresponding sections of the v8.0 changelog.

API endpoints: A list of API endpoints that will be removed from the platform are listed in the v8.0 Changelog, within their product or node sections. Please review this list to see if your app is impacted.

Sharing for Devices: We will be removing access to the “Sharing for Devices” feature, which allows users to share content from iOT devices to Facebook via a share dialog. Developers will lose access to this feature on November 2, 2020.

Version deprecations:

  • September 28, 2020 – v5.0 and v6.0 of the Marketing API will no longer be available
  • October 27, 2020 – v3.1 of the Graph API will no longer be available

No Action Required, For Your Information Only

The following announcements do not require action today, and rather are meant to keep you informed about other changes on our platform.

App Review Improvements for Business Developers: For developers with business apps, we’re customizing and streamlining app onboarding and integration based on the different ways that developers and businesses use the Facebook platform. We’re also introducing a new reviewable feature called Business Asset User Profile Access for business apps accessing user profile data through business assets. Please read more about this update in our App Review Improvements for Business Developers Blog.

Target Cost Bidding: Starting October 1, 2020, target cost bidding will no longer be available to select from the available bidding options in the UI. Note that target cost will be deprecated in v8.0 of the Marketing API, but accessible in v7.0. For developers who would like to continue controlling cost, we recommend using the cost cap bid strategy, which offers the ability to cap your campaign’s average CPA, and get as many optimization events as you can for your budget without exceeding the cap. Compared to target cost, you can expect more optimization events and more spend when using cost cap.

Action Item Calendar

Marketing API Version Deprecations

  • Be aware that v5.0 and v6.0 of the Marketing API will be removed from the platform. | 09/28/2020 | N/A

Changes to tokenless access for User Picture and FB/IG OEmbed endpoints

  • Update token usage for access to User Picture. | 10/24/2020 | User Picture
  • Update token usage for access to FB OEmbed endpoints. | 10/24/2020 | FB OEmbed
  • Update token usage for access to IG OEmbed endpoints. | 10/24/2020 | IG OEmbed

Graph API Version Deprecation

  • Be aware that v3.1 of the Graph API will be removed from the platform. | 10/27/2020 | N/A

Business Management Permission Updates

  • Apps will need to request granular business_management permissions on the business that own the ad accounts | 11/02/2020 | Permission Documentation

API Endpoints

  • Be aware of upcoming removal of API endpoints from the platform. | 11/02/2020 or 08/04/2022 (specified in the changelog) | Changelog

Sharing for Devices

  • Be aware of upcoming removal of the “Sharing for Devices” feature. | 11/02/2020 | N/A

Decoupling catalog_management from ads_management permissions

  • Developers with access to catalog_management will need to prompt their users to grant access via the FB Login Dialog. | 01/31/2021 | v8.0 changelog

Facebook Developers

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App Review improvements for Business Developers



As part of the initiatives we’re launching to improve the developer experience, we’re customizing and streamlining app onboarding and integration based on the different ways developers and businesses use the Facebook platform. Today, we’re announcing a series of improvements for developers building Business apps to manage their on-Facebook business assets. We’ll be rolling out these updates over the coming weeks.

Simplifying App Review for business apps with data access levels

We’re replacing both Development and Live Mode for business apps with data access levels that streamline integration and offer more flexibility when building and using apps.

In the new model, there are three data access levels for every permission and feature:

  • Standard Access: Grants access to assets and data that a developer’s business or anyone with a role on their app owns. Apps in Development Mode and new apps will be auto-granted Standard Access for every business permission and feature. Live Mode apps will be auto-granted Standard Access for any business permission and feature not previously approved via App Review.
  • Advanced Access: In addition to the data granted in Standard Access, Advanced Access allows access to data owned by other businesses or people. Developers can submit for Advanced Access through App Review for each business permission and feature. Apps in Live Mode will be migrated to Advanced Access for any permissions and features they have already had approved via App Review. All remaining permissions and features will be auto-granted Standard Access.
  • None: No data access. Developers may remove their access for any permission or feature and easily return to prior access level if they choose.

With data access levels, developers can instantly test and use permissions and features on any data and assets that they or anyone else with a role on their app or business own, without having to go through App Review. Learn more about data access levels here.

New Business Asset User Profile Access feature

To further safeguard and protect user data, we’re rolling out a new reviewable feature for Business apps, Business Asset User Profile Access, for access to user profile data through business assets. Details about the new feature are outlined in the v8.0 changelog. Business apps that are currently approved to access user profile data and are actively using it will be migrated to Advanced Access for this feature. Apps that haven’t used this data for 90 days will be migrated to Standard Access and may submit for Advanced Access.

Additional App Review improvements

We’re introducing other App Dashboard updates to streamline App Review based on feedback we’ve heard:

  • Consolidating permissions and features into a single page so that developers can easily find all permissions and features, as well as their access levels, in one place. This includes merging Messenger permissions into this location.
  • More guidance on Ads Management Standard Access eligibility through instant notifications, if your app has not met the API call requirements to submit for App Review.

These updates are part of the initiatives we’re rolling out to drive long-term value for developers while building a safer, more sustainable platform.

Facebook Developers

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Connecting a web app to your PyTorch model using Amazon SageMaker



Author: Cami Williams

Hello fellow programmers, it is me, Cami Williams, your friendly neighborhood open source Developer Advocate, back at it again with a PyTorch blog post.

I have decided to take to task the challenge of deploying my PyTorch neural network (a.k.a. model), with the goal of hooking it up to a REST API so I can access it via a web application.

If you have yet to read my other blog posts about PyTorch, take a look at them here:

In these posts, I dive into what PyTorch is, how it is organized, and how to get up and running with training and testing a model. Next step: actually do something with it.

Admittedly, I come to the table with AWS knowledge and bias, so my go-to here is to check out their resources. In doing so I stumbled upon Amazon SageMaker: a fully managed service that provides every developer and data scientist with the ability to build, train, and deploy machine learning (ML) models quickly. *Italian chef kiss* Exactly what I want.

In theory, I would have my model hosted on SageMaker, create a Lambda function to take in data from the web, send it to the SageMaker instance, and send back information from the model, and then a REST API hosted through API Gateway to access that Lambda function. Here’s a semi-helpful diagram depicting the communication flow:

Before moving forward, it would be a MAJOR disservice to you unless I have future Cami tell you how much this all costs.

Future Cami: Hello PyTorch enthusiasts. The project Cami is about to build came back witgkh a very big AWS bill of $314.23, entirely due to the fact that she used an ml.m4.4xlarge running instance of SageMaker, versus medium or small. Don’t make the same mistake. If you do, AWS is really nice about experimenting mistakes, you can talk to customer support for help if something happens. Once I adjusted the instance, the bill was just shy of $30 (after a lot of testing). You have been warned.

AWS can get PRICEY and so experimenting with it is not always the best option. If you have found other options for deploying your model and attaching it to a REST API, please let the fam know by commenting on this post or writing a blog post that we can share! Otherwise, check out 7 Ways to Reduce Your AWS Bill, and remember to turn off whatever you aren’t actively using on AWS.

SO! What are we building today? We will use our MNIST handwritten numbers model from the Intro to PyTorch blog post to create a web app that detects digits of pi. A user will enter the website, draw a number on a web canvas, and if it is a digit of pi (i.e. 3.14159) according to our model, the digit will appear on the screen in the proper position. Thanks to Future Cami, again, for the following gif of the functioning web app:

I will build this app in the following order:

If this is your cup of tea, then let’s start building!

Host MNIST model on SageMaker

When I started building this, I went through the Get Started with Amazon SageMaker Notebook Instances and SDKs tutorial to understand how to deploy my model. This will be the abridged version, appealing to those who just want to plug and chug code and keep moving. If you are interested in the nitty gritty, definitely read that tutorial. Note: I am going to be working in us-east-1. Pick whichever AWS region you desire.

Navigate to Amazon SageMaker Studio and click on Notebook Instances in the left-hand menu.

Click on “Create notebook instance”, and enter in the following fields:

  • Notebook instance name: PyTorchPi (or something similar)
  • Notebook instance type: ml.m4.4xlarge ml.t2.medium Future Cami: this is where she made the billing mistake. Use medium.
  • Elastic inference: none
  • IAM Role: Create new role
  • S3 buckets you specify: Any S3 bucket (were you to push this app to production, you would probably want to change the permissions here, but for our example we will just make it completely open).
  • Create role
  • Root access: Enable
  • Encryption key: No Custom Encryption
  • Create notebook instance

Your notebook instance should show “Pending” for some time. While we wait, let’s put together the code for our model. There’s more documentation on how to train and deploy PyTorch models with SageMaker that you can also read. Rather than doing that, we can go straight to the source, a GitHub repo! This gives us an example on how we can train and use a PyTorch MNIST model on SageMaker, and get model results from it by drawing our own digits.

Cami, how did you find such a perfect example that matches exactly what we need to build this web app?

Dear reader, do not question a wonderful thing. Let’s keep going.

In this folder you will see “input.html“, ““ and “pytorch_mnist.ipynb“.

  • “input.html“ : Code for the canvas to draw digits
  • ““ : Code to construct, train, and test your model with some data
  • “pytorch_mnist.ipynb“ : A runnable notebook to train and host the model with MNIST data, and test with the “input.html“ app.

Within SageMaker, we will host “input.html“ and ““, and probably never touch them again. “pytorch-mnist.ipynb“ is where we will interact with this code, potentially make changes, but ultimately deploy the model.

By this point, your PyTorchPi SageMaker Notebook instance should show a status of “InService”. If it does, under “Actions” select “Open Jupyter”. You should be directed to a new url: <NOTEBOOK-NAME>.notebook.<REGION>

Upload “input.html“, ““, and “pytorch_mnist.ipynb“ to the Jupyter directory. Once they are uploaded, click on “pytorch_mnist.ipynb“.

This will open a new window with the runnable notebook. A couple quick housekeeping items:

  • Find the code block that says “predictor = estimator.deploy(initial_instance_count=1, instance_type=’ml.m4.xlarge’)“. Change it to say “predictor = estimator.deploy(initial_instance_count=1, instance_type=’ml.t2.medium’)“
  • Delete the “Cleanup” code block that says “estimator.delete_endpoint()“ so we can eventually deploy the SageMaker endpoint created from the code (“Edit”, then “Delete Cells”).

In the top menu, select “Cell” then “Run All” and see magic happen before your eyes: your model building, training, and optimizing. Also maybe go get a snack or something because this takes a while to finish running.

Scroll through the notebook to see what exactly is going down, or directly to the bottom of the notebook to see the final output.

Pro tip/explanation: If a number appears next to the code block, that means it ran successfully and you can see the output. If it is a “*” then it has yet to run or is currently running.

Once the code is done running, you will see a frame where you can draw a number (as coded in “input.html“. Draw a number in the box and then run the last code block. It will output the model’s prediction of what number your drawing represents.

Play around with this a bit for funzies. Once you are done, we are ready to deploy our model through this prediction endpoint.

Deploy model

Fortunately, the code we needed to run to deploy our model was already in this notebook! You can read more about how this is done under “Host”.

If you ever want to update the endpoint, you will have to re-run this code.

This aside, open a new tab, or navigate to the AWS SageMaker Studio again. In the left-hand menu, click on “Endpoints”.

You should be able to see your pytorch-training endpoint. Click on the endpoint to ensure that the creation time is recent to the last time you ran the notebook. Scroll to “Endpoint runtime settings” to also ensure your instance type is ml.t2.medium.

Assuming everything looks correct, take note of the Name and URL in Endpoint settings. This will be what we reference in our Lambda function. Ideally, we could connect this URL directly to API Gateway. That said, I want to make sure that it is protected by a Lambda function: my Lambda can parse the incoming data to ensure that it is in the correct format. If the sent-over data is incorrect, rather than checking it in the model (where it would be more costly time- and dollar-wise), I can handle that error in the Lambda.

Connect to Lambda

Now go to AWS Lambda, and click “Create function”. Select “Use a blueprint” and search for “microservice-http-endpoint-python”. This sets up a Lambda function that is intended to be a REST API endpoint using API Gateway.

Click on “Configure”, and enter in the following fields:

  • Function name: PyTorchPiFunction (or something similar)
  • Execution role: Create a new role from AWS policy templates
  • Role name: PyTorchSageMakerLambdaAPIGateway (or something similar)
  • Policy templates: Ensure “Simple microservice permissions” is selected.
  • API Gateway tigger: Create an API
  • API Type: REST API
  • Security: Open (again, were you to push this app to production, you would probably want to change the permissions here, but for our example we will just make it completely open).

Then click, “Create function”. In the window that appears, make note of your Lambda ARN in the top right corner. You should see a diagram in the Designer view of your function connected to API Gateway. If you click on API Gateway here, you will see information about the API endpoint (we will configure this later). For now, click on the PyTorchPiFunction.

In the Function Code section, you should see the code for your Lambda function. Here, we want to be able to intake data from our web app, send it to the SageMaker endpoint, and return the result of the model in SageMaker. To do so, we should create an environment variable for the SageMaker endpoint name.

Scroll down to the Environment variables section and click “Manage environment variables”. Click on “Add environment variable” and set the “Key” to ENDPOINT_NAME, and the value to your SageMaker endpoint name.

Save this environment variable. Now, let’s write some code. Back in the Function code section, delete everything present, and paste the following code:

 python import os import io import boto3 import json import csv # grab environment variables ENDPOINT_NAME = os.environ['ENDPOINT_NAME'] runtime= boto3.client('runtime.sagemaker') def lambda_handler(event, context): #print("Received event: " + json.dumps(event, indent=2)) // 1 data = json.loads(json.dumps(event)) payload = data['data'] print("PAYLOAD: ", payload) // 2 response = runtime.invoke_endpoint(EndpointName=ENDPOINT_NAME, ContentType='application/json', Body=payload)xe print(response) result = json.loads(response['Body'].read().decode()) // 3 pred = max(result[0]) // 4 predicted_label = result[0].index(pred) // 5 return predicted_label 

This code does the following:

  • Takes in image data
  • Invokes the SageMaker endpoint
  • Prints and loads the response from the model
  • Takes the maximum from the result (i.e. the label/number that has the highest probability according to the model output)
  • Sends this information back in the response.

This code is hard to test, because we would need to get the multi-dimensional interpretation of the image… so trust me for now and we will test momentarily. If you are curious what that interpretation looks like, here is an example of the data this model would intake for a drawing that resembles an “8”:

Neato, right? We will use this to test via API Gateway next, and I will show you the code how to translate an image to this multi-dimensional array. For now, Save your Lambda function.

Before moving on to the REST endpoint, we need to update the IAM permissions of this function to allow access to SageMaker. Scroll to the top and click on “Permissions”. Under “Execution role”, click on the Role name:

This should open a new tab where we can attach the SageMaker policy. Click on “Attach policies” and search for “SageMaker”. Add “AmazonSageMakerFullAccess” and click “Attach policy”.

Now, navigate to API Gateway and click on “PyTorchPiFunction-API”, or in your Lambda function under “Configuration”, click on the API Gateway tab in the Designer view, then click on the “PyTorchPiFunction-API”.

Create REST endpoint

Because we pre-configured this endpoint when we created our Lambda function, it has some things already defined for us. For sake of sanity, rather than explain this setup I am going to advise we delete and start from scratch.

Under Resources you should have the PyTorchPiFunction. Go ahead and delete this by clicking on “Actions”, then “Delete Resource”.

Once that is deleted, under “Actions” select “Create Method”. A dropdown menu should appear, select POST and click on the little gray checkmark. Doing so should bring up a pane where you can set up the endpoint.

In the “Lambda Function” section, paste in your Lambda ARN that we noted earlier. You can also input the name of the function (“PyTorchPiFunction”), but I always do the ARN just to ensure they are matched properly. Click Save.

Now we will see all the method executions of this endpoint. Click on the Actions dropdown and select “Enable CORS”. Update to the following:

  • Access-Control-Allow-Headers : ‘Content-Type,X-Amz-Date,Authorization,X-Api-Key,x-requested-with’
  • Access-Control-Allow-Origin* : ‘*’

Click “Enable CORS” and replace existing CORS headers. If you get a dialog asking to confirm method changes, select Yes, replace existing values.

Click on the POST endpoint to see all of the Method executions. We can leave “Method Request”, “Integration Request” and “Integration Response” as is. Select “Method Response”. You should see a line item that has the HTTP status as 200. Click on the dropdown for this.

Under Response Headers for 200, add the following headers if they aren’t already present:

  • X-Requested-With
  • Access-Control-Allow-Headers
  • Access-Control-Allow-Origin
  • Access-Control-Allow-Methods

Click back to Method Execution. Now we can finally test our REST API. Click on the Test lightning bolt. You should now see the Method Test pane.

If you scroll to the bottom of this pane and click “Test”, you should get a Response Body that resembles the following:

 json { "errorMessage": "'data'", "errorType": "KeyError", "stackTrace": [ " File \"/var/task/\", line 16, in lambda_handler\n payload = data['data']\n" ] } 

If you do, this shows that we correctly can access our Lambda function! Yay! It is coming back with a response saying that it is missing our input data. In the request body, enter:

 { "data": "[[[[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]]]]" } 

Remember the image above of the 8 as a multidimensional array? This is it! Click “Test” and you should get more examples of multidimensional arrays, you can refer to the runnable notebook on SageMaker:

  • Run all cells of the notebook if you haven’t already.
  • Scroll to the bottom of the notebook
  • Draw a number
  • In the last cell block, add the line “print([data])“
  • Copy the output multidimensional array and set “data” to this array in your API Gateway test.

If you are getting errors with any of this, you should check out the logs on AWS CloudWatch. To do so, navigate to CloudWatch on AWS, click on Log groups on the left-hand menu, and select your Lambda function name. There should be a line item for every time your API Gateway test calls your Lambda function. Common errors I had:

  • Parameter validation failed: Make sure that “data” and the multidimensional array are in quotes.
  • Expected 4-dimensional input for 4-dimensional weight 10 1 5 5, but got 3-dimensional input of size [1, 28, 28] instead: Ensure your multidimensional array has 4 [[[[ and ]]]] at the beginning and end.

Our API is working and fully connected to our model. In the Actions menu, select Deploy API. You can use either “default” or “[New Stage]”. For my own entertainment, I am going to make a new stage and call it “prod”. Once you have made your choice, select “Deploy”. This will take you to the Stage Editor, you shouldn’t have to make any changes here, but for sanity click “Save Changes”. Make a note somewhere of the Invoke URL, this will be the REST endpoint we call in our web app!

PHEW! We did it! All the crazy AWS stuff is DONE. Now we can begin our end… building the web application.

Build the web app

I don’t really want to get too in the weeds with this web app. I figure that you probably are reading this post more for the PyTorch stuff over the HTML/CSS madness. So, with that assumption, I am just going to explain the JavaScript side of things. Cool? Cool.

In the HTML, I am using a canvas, similar to what we used in the “input.html“ we uploaded to SageMaker. There are ways to style how a user would draw on the canvas, this can take some time to play with.

Once we are able to intake the drawing on the canvas properly, we need to get its pixel information. This took some playing around. But essentially when a user clicks “down” in the canvas, I execute the following code.

 javascript function getMousePos(e) { if (!e) var e = event; if (e.offsetX) { mouseX = e.offsetX; mouseY = e.offsetY; } else if (e.layerX) { mouseX = e.layerX; mouseY = e.layerY; } x = Math.floor(e.offsetY * 0.05); y = Math.floor(e.offsetX * 0.05) + 1; for (var dy = 0; dy < 2; dy++){ for (var dx = 0; dx < 2; dx++){ if ((x + dx < 28) && (y + dy < 28)){ pixels[(y+dy)+(x+dx)*28] = 1; } } } } 

The “pixels“ array is then updated with 0s and 1s representing where the user had drawn and the negative space around the drawing. Once the user hits “Enter” or is ready to send their drawing, I use a function from the “input.html“ to convert “pixels“ to the proper multidimensional array format for the model.

 javascript function set_value() { let result = "[[[" for (var i = 0; i < 28; i++) { result += "[" for (var j = 0; j < 28; j++) { result += pixels [i * 28 + j] || 0 if (j < 27) { result += ", " } } result += "]" if (i < 27) { result += ", " } } result += "]]]" return result } 

With the “result“ from “set_value()“, I call my REST API.

 async function sendImageToModel(canvas) { let data = set_value(); let payload = { "data" : data } let response = await fetch('<REST API URL>', { method: 'POST', body: JSON.stringify(payload), dataType: 'json', headers: { 'Content-Type': 'application/json' } }); let myJson = await response.json(); return myJson; } 

When I have the numerical response from calling my API, I then show the digit of pi according to its next match on the screen and clear the canvas for the user to provide the next input.


Huzzah! We did it! We have successfully created a web application that accesses our MNIST PyTorch model.

To those of you who have read this far, I salute you! If you just scrolled to the bottom of the post, hello! If you have any questions, please feel free to leave a comment here or to tweet at me on Twitter (@cwillycs).

Thanks for reading, and happy hacking!

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